Lit & Links

‘Working on it
Literature and links relevant to the decsription and discussion of lakes, streams and wetlands of Sandy Lake and Environs.

Sackville Rivers Association (SRA) (website)
The Sandy Lake watershed is a subwatershed of the Sackville River watershed. The SRA is a highly active organization which works to
1) Protect and where necessary restore the environment of the Sackville River Watershed
2) Raise awareness about the environment of the Sackville River watershed and its adjacent watersheds
3) Establish a Conservation Corridor along the length of the Sackville River
4) Provide training and advice to community groups in other watersheds as needed, to restore the environment and raise environmental awareness

Natural Freshwater Lakes and Ponds in New Hampshire: Draft
Nichols, W. F. 2015.NH Natural Heritage Bureau. Includes descriptions of wetland vegetation in relation to lake & pond trophic status

Aquatic vegetation of Nova Scotian lakes differing in acidity and trophic status
Diane S.Srivastava, Cynthia A.Staicer, & Bill Freedman 1995. Aquatic Botany 51: 181-196

NSLC Adopt A Stream
The NSLC Adopt A Stream Program provides funding and technical support to help community volunteer organizations undertake projects to protect, repair and improve the aquatic and riparian habitats of local wetlands, lakes, streams, rivers and estuaries in Nova Scotia. Excellent Project Resources:
Nova Scotia Adopt A Stream Manual
Fish Habitat Restoration Methods
Interpreting Water Quality
Aquatic Connectivity Analytical Database
Also items under Training, e.g.
Culvert Assessment for Fish Passage
Habitat Suitability Assessment
The Nova Scotia Fish Habitat Assessment Protocol- June 2018.pdf

Stream Classification
Slideset at attributable to Scott Eaton

Peverill’s Brook – An Atlantic Salmon Conservation Foundation and Adopt-a-Stream Sponsored Project
“At Peverill’s Brook this summer, we measured the area that needed and could be worked on to determine the amount of digger logs we could install. Among all of our other work, this summers crew (2012) managed to install eleven logs along Peverill’s and enhanced one natural rock sill. We divided the stream into a lower and upper section, between which lies marsh lake. These before and after pictures clearly illustrate the narrowing of the channel widths, and when the water is high, how much oxygen gets plunged into the river as pools get dug out for the fish.”

The Canadian Wetland Classification System, 2nd ed.

Methods for evaluating wetland condition #7 Wetlands Classification
U.S. EPA, 2002.

“WALKING THE RIVER” A Citizen’s Guide to Interpreting Water Quality Data
Nova Scotia Salmon Association NSLC Adopt-a-Stream Program April 2014 Version

The effects of land use changes on water quality of urban lakes in the Halifax-Dartmouth region: Sandy Lake
Pages from Paul Mandel, MSc thesis, Dalhousie University, 1994

Principles and Guidelines for Ecological Restoration in Canada’s Protected Natural Areas
National Parks Directorate, Parks Canada Agency Gatineau, Quebec. 2008

Fish Friends 2019 final Report
Sackville Rivers Association

Field guide to algae and other “scums” in ponds, lakes, streams and rivers
Miriam Steinitz Kannan and Nicole Lenca, Northern Kentucky University 2013

Cyanobacteria Presence in Four Lakes in the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), Nova Scotia
Betts, Rebecca A. Dalhousie University Graduate thesis 2018. “The major objective of this project is to assess the presence of cyanobacteria (organisms that can pose serious challenges for drinking water treatment systems), in Halifax water supplies using DNA typing to identify cyanobacteria species. Four lakes in the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), NS, were chosen due to their differing water chemistry. A total of 35 taxa of cyanobacteria and one taxa of unassigned bacteria were detected, of which, 15 genera of cyanobacteria were identified. Of those genera, 11 have been associated with cyanotoxins, which are harmful to humans and animals. Supplementary data showed that two of the four lakes had higher pH, alkalinity, TN, TP and turbidity means than the others, and had detectable cyanotoxins and algal blooms after periods of rain followed by long periods of warm, dry, relatively calm weather. This thesis will provide a foundation for future experiments into lake and cyanotoxin management.”

Lake classification in Nova Scotia from phosphorous loading, transparency and hypolimnetic oxygen consumption
Schwartz, P. Y. and Underwood, J. K. Proc. Nova Scotian Institute of Science 1986. “Three indices of eutrophication are used to compare effects of urbanization on seven headwater lakes near Halifax, Nova Scotia. Annual (1983) inputs of phosphorus were calculated and compared with lake Secchi transparencies and rates of consumption of hypolimnetic oxygen (Thienemann index). Results from transparency and oxygen deficits were similar but implied greater eutrophication than did the phosphorus index. Brief discussion of some inherent problems of each index is included.

Coastal Action Publications
“Coastal Action, established in December 1993, is a charitable organization that addresses environmental concerns within the South Shore region of Nova Scotia. Our goal is to promote the restoration, enhancement, and conservation of our environment through research, education, and action. Coastal Action is currently tackling many environmental issues that fall under the following theme areas; species at risk and biodiversity, watersheds and water quality, climate change and education, as well as coastal and marine.”
Some of the publications:
Watershed Wisdom
In-stream structures: Digger Logs
In-stream structure: Deflectors
In-stream structures: Rock Sills
Save the LaHave Activity Booklet. and more

Water Quality Monitoring in the Sackville River Watershed 2015 and 2016
Bill Ernst and Damon Conrad, Sackville Rivers Association November 2016.

Connectivity of Streams and Wetlands To Downstream Waters: A Review and Synthesis of the Scientific Evidence (Final Report)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-14/475F, 2015. “The report summarizes current scientific understanding about the connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters. EPA has conducted a thorough review of the literature – more than 1,200 peer-reviewed and published documents – on the scientific evidence regarding the effects that streams, nontidal wetlands, and open -waters have on larger downstream waters such as rivers, lakes, estuaries, and oceans. The focus of the report is on surface and shallow subsurface connections by which small or temporary streams, nontidal wetlands, and open waters affect larger waters such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. EPA, along with other federal agencies and states, can use this scientific report to inform policy and regulatory decisions, including the Clean Water Rule being developed by EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.”

Rivers and Streams: Life in Flowing Water
By: Declan McCabe © 2011 Nature Education in Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):19 Learning Resource. “What lies beneath? Rivers: diverse habitats with broadly varying niches. Communities reflect and influence local, upstream, downstream, and broader landscape conditions.”