VI CONTROL: Overview  Acute  Cultural  Redesign


Control of Chinch Bug Without Pesticides
and Other Ecological Lawncare Practices

  1. Introduction
  2. Permitted Materials Lists
  3. Cross Referencing
    of the Administrative Order 23 Materials List
  4. Reading the Label
  5. The Pest and Site Must be Listed
  6. A Limited Range of Alternative Products in Canada
  7. Product Label Extensions
  8. Postscript
  9. Links

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    Use of Pyrethrins and Neem Oil to Control Chinch Bug (Posted Aug 16, '07)

    Comments on the PMRA's Harmonization Proposal
    (Posted Sep. 13, '07)

    The Pesticide By-Law bans cosmetic use of pesticides in Halifax Regional Municipality. Some alternatives or less toxic materials are permitted to treat pest infestations. Yet, with a few notable exceptions, banned pesticides are still available on store shelves and there is no labeling to indicate what is legally permissible and what isn't. Even some of the permitted 'alternative' products may be questionable in regard to safety. In this section, the concept of 'permitted materials' is explained, some guidelines for reading labels are offered and web resources which can be of help in making informed choices are highlighted.

    IMPORTANT UPDATE (DEC., 2010): New regulations restricting use of many pesticides on lawns and ornamentals province-wide were passed by the Nova Scotia legislature in 2010. A list of allowable pesticides - similar to HRM's Administrative Order 23 Materials List cited on this page - specifies what can be used. The sale and use of pesticides not on the list will be prohibited on lawns as of April 1, 2011. The legislation will extend to ornamental shrubs, flowers and trees on April 1, 2012. See details at http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/pests/non-essential.pesticides.asp

    1. Introduction

    The intent of the HRM Pesticide By-Law is to eliminate cosmetic uses of pesticides in the yard and garden and on public properties. In practice that is achieved by encouraging cultural controls of pests such as those we are advocating for control of chinch bug and, when pesticidal materials may need to be used (e.g. during the transition to more effective cultural controls), restricting those to a set of 'permitted materials' (also referred to as 'permitted pesticides' or 'alternative materials'). Under the HRM Pesticide By-law, these materials are defined in Administrative Order No. 23.

    Halifax, 3 Aug 2004
    Identification of a set of permitted materials is a complex process because of the intersection of various levels of regulation, voluntary codes etc. and because what is considered 'acceptable' or 'safe' is ultimately a personal decision. Many individuals are satisfied that the Federal/Provincial pesticide regulations provide a sufficient level of protection to people and the environment. Nevertheless, a majority of HRM citizens felt that the those regulations are not sufficiently precautionary to ensure complete safety for its residents, especially children and environmentally sensitive individuals. The Pesticide By-law was introduced to provide an additional level of protection or comfort for HRM residents.

    However, even with the Pesticide By-law, many non-permissible materials are still available in many stores in HRM (which cater to consumers outside of HRM and, potentially, to commercial enterprises in HRM which are not subject to the by-law) and it can be difficult to identify which of the products are permitted under the HRM by-law. Some citizens may want to be more precautionary in the use of alternative materials than provided for by the list of materials in Administrative order No. 23

    In this section, the concept of 'permitted materials' is explained, some guidelines for reading labels are offered and web resources which can be of help in making informed choices are highlighted.

    2. Permitted Materials Lists

    Classification of Material Inputs
    Under Organic Standards

    All organic standards, including the Canadian General Standards Board Organic Standard, assign one of three levels of use to potential materials inputs to organic agriculture and horticulture and to the organic processing of agricultural products:

    • ALLOWED These materials are in compliance with organic standards, and can be used for designated purposes without restriction or special permission.

    • RESTRICTED These materials have some significant drawbacks and an individual user must have specific approval of the certifying body for their use. An example is pyrethrum or pyrethrin. It is a 'botanical pesticide' derived from flower heads of the pyrethrum daisy. It has a Restricted status because it is a strong pesticide that kills a wide range of non-target organisms, and it also has some negative effects on humans.

    • PROHIBITED These are materials which may be acceptable and legal in conventional systems but are not compatible with the principles of organic agriculture. They include all synthetic pesticides, and all GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) and materials made from GMOs, e.g. corn gluten made from GMO corn.
    Most prohibited materials are not listed in Permitted Materials Lists, except when there might be some confusion of a particular Prohibited Material with a particular Allowed or Restricted Material. For example, for use as Dormant Oils, petroleum based oils are Prohibited, while vegetable based oils are Allowed.

    In general people who want to avoid synthetic pesticides or 'hard' pesticides are comfortable with natural materials that are (i) innocuous to humans and (ii) have little or no effect on non-target organisms such as pets, birds, earthworms, ladybird beetles, etc., the latter because the non-target organisms are valued for their own sake and because many of them are involved in the natural control of pests. Not all natural materials meet these conditons, in fact some of the strongest pesticides around, such as nicotene, are natural materials. Natural materials that do meet these criteria are sometimes referred to as "soft" pesticides although that term (like the term "organic") has also been used to refer to certain types of synthetic materials.

    Thus it can get pretty complicated to define which natural materials are safe for humans and non-target organisms, recognizing that materials we are using to control pests cannot be entirely innocuous! Fortunately, well before the Pesticide By-law came into place, organic practitioners developed a process for formally screening natural materials that might be used as inputs to organic systems, and each organic certifying organization produced its own "Permitted Materials List". This task soon proved to be beyond the capabilities of individual certifying organizations, and in 1997 an organization called OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute) was set up to handle this issue in North America.

    Federal organic standards in both the U.S. (the U.S. National Organic Program) and Canada (Canadian General Standards Board Organic Standard) recognize the OMRI Generic Materials List as an authoritative list. Halifax Regional Municipality made use of the OMRI Generic Materials List in developing its list of permitted materials which is contained in HRM Administrative Order No. 23.

    However there are some important differences between the list in HRM Administrative Order No. 23 and the lists issued by organic organizations. In the organic classifications of material inputs, an individual material is assigned Allowed, Restricted or Prohibited status (see box at right). In the HRM list no such distinction is made; all listed materials are simply allowed.

    In the legal context, the permissible materials for pest control under the HRM By-Law are those defined in HRM Administrative Order No. 23. However those who subscribe to the spirit of the Pesticide By-law and/or are environmentally sensitive may want to make use of the more conservative classifications provided by the CGSB Organic Standard (and OMRI) and in general to avoid any CGSB Prohibited or Restricted materials.

    The ACORN Directory: A convenient resource for identifying pest control materials and products approved for organic use in Canada.

    A further complication for the consumer is that HRM Administrative Order No. 23 and the CGSB Organic Standard list materials or substances but not individual retail products, and individual products may contain both Allowed and Prohibited materials.

    OMRI publishes an approved Brand Name Products List , but some of the products are not registered for use in Canada. In 2003, the Atlantic Canada Regional Organic Network (ACORN) set up a comprehensive Directory of Allowable Organic Inputs which provides a practical tool for determining the status of materials and products under both the CGSB Organic Standard and OMRI. The directory is fully and freely accessible via the web (www.acornorganic.org/acorn/).

    Consult sections

         1.2.3 (Insect and Mite Controls)
         1.2.7 (Plant Disease Control)
         1.2.9 (Weed Control)

    for classes of materials and particular products approved for organic pest control in Canada, i.e., materials and products that are ALLOWED under the CGSB Organic Standard.

    The ACORN database lists 30+ types of pest control materials. Materials are listed by by generic category (e.g. Diatomaceous Earth). For each item, the database provides:
    • CGSB status, which means whether it is Allowed, Restricted or Prohibited
    • Comments on the mode of action of the material, and on its use
    • Names and addresses of Canadian suppliers of products containing approved materials
    • PMRA approval and the PCP number for individual products. The PCP numbers are linked to PDF files that can be viewed to obtain application rates, active ingredients, and manufacture recommendations.
    • A product's status with OMRI; it is either Y or N; yes mean that the product has been submitted to OMRI for approval; N means that it has not been submitted for approval.
    Also useful: Section 4 Insects and Mites provides descriptions of common insect and mite pests of crops (and vegetable gardens) and how to deal with them and Section 5 Weeds discusses controls for various weeds.

    3. Cross Referencing of the Administrative Order 23 Materials List with the CGSB Organic Standard Materials List

    Below, materials listed under Administrative Order No. 23 are cross referenced with their status according to the Canadian General Standards Board Organic Standard (and OMRI) and/or the ACORN database and/or the the SOUL List.

    HRM List of Permitted Materials
    Admin. Order #23
    (approved June 5, 2001)
    Status according to the CGSB Organic Standard (and OMRI) and/or the ACORN database and/or the SOUL List
    (1) Insecticidal soapsCGSB ALLOWED. However, note (i) that some insecticidal soap products contain pyrethrin, a RESTRICTED material; (ii) currently, insecticidal soaps are NOT registered with the PMRA for use on chinch.
    (2) Herbicidal soapsCGSB ALLOWED. These are referred to as "Herbicides, animal-derived (not synthetically processed)" in the CGSB Standard, and as "Fatty Acids" in the ACORN database.
    (3) Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) CGSB ALLOWED. However Bt products are not registered with the PMRA for use on lawns. ACORN notes that Bt products developed using genetic engineering, or with certain inerts are PROHIBITED.
    (4) NematodesCGSB ALLOWED (referred to as "Arthropod parasitoids" in the CGSB Standard).
    (5) Other biological control organisms Arthropod (insect, spider, and mite) predators and parasites are CGSB ALLOWED.
    (6) Animal repellents Animal Repellents which contain no synthetic ingredients are CGSB ALLOWED.
    (7) Rodenticides Not specifically cited in the CGSB Standard, except that Traps (electrical, visible and ultravioloet light, physical and visual) are ALLOWED.
    From the SOUL list :
    • Anti-coagulant Rodenticides PROHIBITED.
    • Mechanical traps ALLOWED but not with synthetic baits.
    • Sulphur RESTRICTED. Smoke bombs used for rodent control must be used in conjunction with other methods.
    • Sulphur dioxide ALLOWED. Allowed for use in sulphur smoke bombs for control of underground rodents.
    • Vitamin D-3 (Cholecalciferol) RESTRICTED. Vitamin D-3 cannot be the sole means of rodent control. Precautions must be taken to prevent killing non-target organisms.
    (8) Injected tree treatments These are not specifically cited in the CGSB Standard or on the SOUL list or in the ACORN database. They include some very toxic materials and should be handled only by professionals.
    (9) Sticky media Sticky media are not on the CGSB list; SOUL: Sticky traps and barriers ALLOWED. Must not contain prohibited pesticides or other prohibited substances.
    (10) Borax CGSB ALLOWED.
    (11) Dormant oilsPetroleum based dormant oils are CGSB PROHIBITED.
    Vegetable based dormant oils are CGSB ALLOWED.
    (12) Horticultural oils Not specifically listed on CGSB standard; SOUL: RESTRICTED Follow product use restrictions. May not contain any prohibited insecticides or other ingredients. [On SOUL List] See 'Suffocating oils' and 'Petroleum distillates ' for more information.
    (13) Bordeaux mixture and other sulphur compoundsCGSB RESTRICTED. On SOUL: Must be used in a manner that minimizes copper accumulation in the soil.
    (14) Lime sulphur CGSB ALLOWED, however, ACORN and SOUL lists it as RESTRICTED; from SOUL: Foliar application as a fungicide. May be used as an insecticide only if there are no feasible alternatives.
    (15) Ferric phosphate Not specified by CGSB Standard. PROHIBITED under SOUL Standard. (Ferric phosphate is used for control of slugs).
    (16) Pruning paintNot specified by CGSB; PROHIBITED under SOUL Standards.
    (17) Pheromone traps CGSB ALLOWED.
    (18) Pyrethrum (or pyrethrin) CGSB RESTRICTED. On SOUL List: Only naturally occurring forms are allowed. Piperonyl butoxide may not be used as a synergist. Liquid formulations with prohibited inert ingredients are prohibited. There are currently no pyrethrum products registered in Canada that do not contain synthetic contaminants.

    See More about Pyrethrins.
    (19) Diatomaceous earthCGSB ALLOWED. However, ACORN and SOUL list Diatomaceous Earth as RESTRICTED. From the ACORN database:
    Because the effects of DE are indiscriminate, it will kill beneficial insects as well as targeted pests. In addition, DE dust is harmful if inhaled. It must therefore be used with caution.

    For use in organic systems, only non-heated forms may be used. Also be sure that no synthetic pesticides or synergists are added.
    Acetic Acid
    (Added 10 June, 2003)
    CGSB ALLOWED. Acetic acid is used as non-selective, contact herbicide. See comments on Acetic Acid in ACORN database
    Corn Gluten Meal (CGM)
    (Added 21 June, 2005)
    CGSB ALLOWED. Corn Gluten Meal can be used as a natural pre-emergent herbicide. See comments on Corn Gluten Meal in ACORN database.

    4. Reading Labels

    A Proposal: Replace the Administrative Order 23 Materials List by direct reference to the ACORN Directory

    A major limitation to the use of Administrative Order 23 Materials List in practice is that it deals with different types of materials or substances but not with individual retail products which can contain mixtures of materials, sometimes including both permitted materials and non-permitted materials. Reading labels carefully is one solution but it can be a trying one. Another would be for HRM to replace the Administrative Order 23 Materials List by direct reference to the ACORN Directory. See Proposal. Even in the absence of such a move by HRM, the ACORN Directory is a useful tool for consumers with concerns about pesticides, as noted above. Progressive retailers could cater to green consumers by selecting their products based on the listings in the ACORN Database and advertising that the pest control materials they offer are those approved for organic use in Canada.

    The table above lists permitted materials. These are individual materials or classes of individual materials or substances. In most instances when we purchase pest control materials, we are purchasing them in a particular product. The product usually consists of a mixture of materials.

    So it important to read the label and determine whether the following conditions hold.

    1. The active ingredient(s) is a permitted material.
    2. The other ingredients (including 'inerts') are permissible.
    3. All ingredients are listed and add up to 100%.
    4. The particular pest that you wish to control is listed on the label.

    Think of checking pesticide product labels like checking out nutritional information on food labels. If there are any uncertainties about a pesticide product, the cautionary approach would be to not use the product. Unfortunately at the level of reporting today, even many of the more benign products do not report 100% of the ingredients. There are two options in this circumstance:

    • Use only Brand Names that have some credibility as natural products, e.g., the Safer's product line.

      However, even in those cases, be careful to check the listed ingredients for permitted materials and pay particular attention to whether any botanical pesticides such as rotenone and pyrethrin are listed. Only one botanical pesticide — pyrethrin — is allowed under the HRM By-law. However, it is a pesticide with potential health risks[V44] and kills beneficial organisms as well as pests. For those who want to operate in a truly pesticide-free environment, pyrethrin-containing products should NOT be used. Many of the 'eco-friendly' lines of products include products with pyrethrins. (See More about Pyrethrins.)

    • Check whether a particular product is listed on the OMRI or ACORN Organic Products Lists and use only products that are listed and available in Canada giving extra consideration to any products that have a Restricted status (e.g., products containing botanical pesticides such as pyrethrin and roteneone have a Restricted status).
    See Label Examples.

    5. The Target Pest and the Site Must be Listed on the Label

    Pest control products must list the target pests on labels. These lists are not examples of what pests can be controlled by the product, rather they are legal definitions under the federal Pest Control Products Act of which pests the product can be used to control. If the pest is not on the label, the product cannot be used for control of that pest.

    Similarly, the site must be listed, e.g., houseplants, vegetables, lawn.

    The PMRA provides a convenient way to check what products are registered for use on a particular pest on a particular site. Go to the ELSE database; select "Search Else" and enter the target pest and target site in the box labelled "Search Full Contents of E-Labels"; a list of products which contain the words identified in the search text field will come up. This process will help to identify products that fit a need; the label will need to be read to ensure a product is registered for use on a particular type of site (such as a lawn) and pest (e.g., chinch bug). The PMRA emphasizes that pesticides must be used in a manner consistent with the directions and limitations respecting its use shown on the label.

    For example, to look for products registered for control of chinch bug in lawns, 'chinch bug AND lawn' would be entered in the search box. ('AND' is used as a boolean operator in the search; the expression 'chinch bug AND lawn' means that both 'chinch bug' and 'lawn' must be contained in the product description.) In this case, six products are identified. All contain Sevin (carbaryl) or diazinon. No other products are identified, which means that no other products are registered in Canada for control of chinch bug on lawns.

    6. A Limited Range of Alternative Products are Available in Canada

    Unfortunately, as illustrated by the chinch bugs/lawn example just cited, in Canada the range of alternative products available for control of pests using minimally toxic materials is very limited compared to the U.S. Because a lot of the literature on alternative pest control techniques and materials comes from the U.S. (and is often used by Canadians to prepare documents on alternative pest control), this difference is important.

    The difference between U.S. and Canada are conceptualized in the diagram at right. The red circle encloses the set of all materials permitted in Canada for pest control by the PMRA, the blue circle the set of all materials permitted in the U.S. by the US EPA/FFIRA. These do not overlap completely, so there are materials that are allowed in Canada but not in the U.S. (area 1 in the diagram), materials that are allowed in both countries (area 2), and materials that are allowed in the U.S. but not in Canada (area 5)

    The green shaded area includes all 'alternative materials' that are approved by OMRI in the U.S. and to which organic practitioners in Canada would like to have access. However, only a subset of them are PMRA approved and therefore meet the requirements for inclusion on the CGSB Organic Standard (area 3 in the diagram).

    The OMRI approved materials that can be used in Canada for control of chinch bug are particularly limited. The only substances listed on the ELSE database for control of chinch bugs in lawns are diazinon and sevin, both of which are synthetic pesticides for which there is evidence that they pose significant health and environmental risks; [V32-35] for that reason, both were scheduled in 2000 for removal from the domestic market in both Canada and the U.S[V52] , although in 2004 both products were still on the shelves in HRM. At the same time, insecticidal soap and diatomaceous earth, which are registered for other uses in Canada are NOT registered for use on chinch bug and therefore cannot be used on chinch bug (in Canada). Products for chinch bug based on essential oils which fall under a 'Minimum Risk' category in the U.S. and do not need to be registered there, cannot be used in Canada, nor can products with the botanical pesticide neem as the active agent. Neem is described as a 'soft pesticide'[V23] that is widely accepted elsewhere as a safe alternative to traditional pesticides. There is no apparent reason for the PMRA to move so slowly to remove pesticides that they recognize are serious health hazards from the domestic market, and at the same time restrict access to much safer materials.

    (See also
    The poorest options: PMRA Approved Pesticides.)

    7. Product Label Extensions and Exceptional Uses of Pesticides

    For products that are already registered in Canada, applications can be made to have new uses registered or to get emergency permits for new uses; see

    Such permits could be sought in order to use insecticidal soap and/or diatomaceous earth to control chinch bug. (Products in which these materials are the active agents are available in Canada but are NOT currently registered for use on chinch bug.) Communities and landscaping companies are encouraged to pursue these venues to open up access to more benign pesticidal materials for control of chinch bug.

    See also

    The only permit that can be granted for a product that is NOT REGISTERED in Canada is a Research Permit:

    The PMRA recommends contacting your provincial minor use coordinator to discuss these processes. For Nova Scotia, this is
    Lorne Crozier
    Resource Stewardship Branch
    Nova Scotia Dept. Agriculture & Fisheries
    Box 550
    Truro, NS B2N 5E3
    Tel: (902) 893-6548
    Fax: (902) 893-0244

    Insecticidal soap and diatomaceous earth: under review by the PMRA
    Insecticidal soaps and diatomaceous earth, which are advised elsewhere for control of chinch bug but cannot be used in Canada, are under review by the PMRA as part of their reevaluation of all pesticides registered prior to 31 Dec. 1994. See

  • Proposed Acceptability for Continuing Registration Re-evaluation of Soap Salts (PACR2004-04) Published by the Alternative Strategies and Regulatory Affairs Division, Pest Management Regulatory Agency. 7 April 2004.

  • Proposed Acceptability for Continuing Registration Re-evaluation of Silicon Dioxide and Silica Gel (PACR2004-09) Published by the Alternative Strategies and Regulatory Affairs Division, Pest Management Regulatory Agency. 28 April 2004.

  • To download PDF versions of these documents, see links under Proposed Acceptability for Continuing Registration (PACR Series).
    It is noted in these documents that "The PMRA will accept written comments on this proposal up to 45 days from the date of publication of this document to allow interested parties an opportunity to provide input into the proposed re-evaluation decision for these products."

    8. Postscript

    Some of the comments above might be interpreted as critical of the HRM By-law. They are not intended that way. All involved in the process that resulted in the By-law deserve a great deal of credit and thanks. With Hudson, Quebec, HRM has taken an initiative with a far reaching impact and one that is being followed by many other communities. Hopefully, the Feds will soon be as supportive of pesticide-free approaches in urban areas as they are currently of IPM approaches. It is the early stage of this process, and many of the operating parameters are still being defined. One limitation currently is a scarcity of information about what products and processes can be used in place of pesticides, especially for individuals who really need to avoid all hazardous materials, or simply want to avoid any materials that might be hazardous to others or the environment. The list in HRM Administrative Order No. 23 does not (understandably) provide enough detail for such individuals to use it as a guide to product selection. We are attempting to provide some of that information and it is offered in support of the By-law, not as a critique of it. As always, individuals are encouraged to follow up the sources and links cited on this website and to consult other sources.


    9. Links

    PMRA and Provincial Pesticide Regulations
    • Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) Home Page (www.pmra-arla.gc.ca/english/index-e.html) Health Canada, Spons. (Viewed 15 May 2007).
      "PMRA is a branch of Health Canada, a Canadian federal government department who's mission is to protect human health and the environment by minimizing the risks associated with pest control products, while enabling access to pest management tools, namely, these products, pesticides, and sustainable pest management strategies." The PMRA reponds to queries. See their Contact Us webpage for their 1-800 number, mail and e-mail addresses.

    • PMRA Product Information (http://pr-rp.pmra-arla.gc.ca/portal/page?_pageid=34,17551&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL). PMRA, Spons. (Viewed 15 Aug. 2007).
      This PMRA site provides a convenient way to check what products are registered for use on a particular pest or what products contain a specific active ingredient.

    • The Roles of the PMRA (Health Canada) and Other Levels of Government in Pesticide Regulation (www.versicolor.ca/lawns/docs/PMRA.html)
      This page on our website summarizes the roles of different levels of government in regulation of pesticides, and provides links to relevant websites.

    • Legality of Using Soap to Control Chinch Bug (in Canada)
      A page on this website with comments and conclusions regarding the legality of using soap to control chinch bug (in Canada) based on PMRA documents and correspondence with the PMRA.
    The HRM By-law
    Permitted Materials and Products Lists
    • Halifax Regional Municipality Adminsitrative Order No. 23:
      (www.region.halifax.ns.ca/legislation/adminorders/ao023.htm HRM, Spons. (2000. Viewed 15 May 2007).
      The list of permitted materials under the Halifax Regional Municipality's Pesticide By-Law. Nineteen items listed.

    • National Standard CAN/CGSB-32.310 - Organic Agriculture (www.pwgsc.gc.ca/cgsb/on_the_net/organic/index-e.html) Canadian General Standards Board, Spons. (1999. Viewed 15 May 2007).
      This page has a link for downloading the CGSB Organic Standard.

    • SOUL List 2: Landscape Pest Control Products (www.organiclandcare.org/standard/products_pest.htm) SOUL (Society of Organic Urban Land Care Professionals), Spons. (Viewed 15 May 2007).
      This page takes a minute or more to load on a high speed connection.
      SOUL is based in Victoria, B.C. This list was developed specifically for landscapers. Over 200 materials are listed and classified as ALLOWED, RESTRICTED OR PROHIBITED. About 1/3 of the materials in this list are PROHIBITED; they are listed because they are commonly used by landscapers in conventional management, but are prohibited under organic landscaping standards, e.g., certain types of baits used for animal pest control. Explanatory comments are provided.

    • The ACORN Directory of Allowable Organic Inputs (www.acornorganic.org/acorn/). ACORN (Atlantic Canadian Organic Regional Network, Spons. (Viewed 15 May 2007).

      This database lists 30 types of pest control materials that are permitted under the Canadian Organic Standard in Canada. Materials are listed by by generic category (e.g. Diatomaceous Earth). For each item, the database provides:
      • CGSB status, which means whether it is Allowed, Restricted or Prohibited
      • Comments on the mode of action of the material, and on its use
      • Names and addresses of Canadian suppliers of approved materials
      • PMRA approval and the PCP number. The PCP numbers are linked to PDF files that can be viewed to obtain application rates, active ingredients, and manufacture recommendations.
      • A product's status with OMRI; it is either Y or N; yes mean that the product has been submitted to OMRI for approval; N means that it has not been submitted for approval.

      For items related to the By-Law, consult
    • Section 1.2.3 Insect Controls
    • Section 1.2.9 Weed Control
    • Section 1.2.7 Plant Disease Control

    • OMRI Brand Name Products List (U.S.) (www.omri.org/OMRI_brand_name_list.html) Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI), Spons. (Viewed 12 Oct. 2006).
      This list is available in PDF form and in searchable online form. The list provides names of suppliers of materials for use in organic agriculture and horticulture. To be listed, suppliers must provide OMRI with the complete contents of the product, and the products must meet all requirements of certified organic agriculture as specified in the U.S. by the National Organic Program. A number of Canadian companies have their products listed. While all of these products would be acceptable for organic production in Canada, some are not permitted in Canada because they have not been approved by the PMRA. OMRI also has a Generic Materials List and provides some examples of its contents on their web site. (www.omri.org/OMRI_generic_list.html ) However, the Generic Materials List is available only by subscription.
    Pesticide Toxicity
    • PAN Pesticides Database (www.pesticideinfo.org/Index.html). Pesticide Action Network, Spons. (Viewed 15 May 2007).
      Described as "the one-stop location for current toxicity and regulatory information for pesticides", it includes the following sections: Help Getting Started, Chemical Search or Alphabetized Chemical List, Product Search, Pesticide Poisoning Diagnostic Tool, International Pesticide Registration, Aquatic Ecotoxicity, California Pesticide Use, Pesticide Tutorial and Reference, Least/Non-Toxic Alternatives, Links to Other Resources, Get Active!

      Under Product Search, you can enter a particular product, or company name and it brings up information about U.S. registration; particularly relevant to us is whether PAN identified it as a "Bad actor". Bad Actors are "pesticides that are one of the following: known or probable carcinogens, reproductive or developmental toxicants, cholinesterase inhibitors, known groundwater contaminants or acutely toxic poisons. "

    • THE IMPACT OF CHEMICAL LAWN CARE ON HUMAN HEALTH (http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Environment/RATE/royfox1.html) Roy Fox, Auth. Copy posted on RATE website (Viewed 15 May 2007).

    Organic Standards, Organic Landcare
    • Clauses from the Organic Standard (www.versicolor.ca/lawns/notes/CGSBsum.html)
      This page on our web site contains some clauses from the CGSB Organic Standard that illustrate (i) general principles of organic disease and pest management and (ii) requirements for inclusion of substances on the List of Acceptable Inputs in the CGSB Organic Standard.

    • Organic Agriculture Standards Development in Canada (http://atn-riae.agr.ca/can/e3468.htm) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Spons. (Viewed 15 May 2007).
      An overview of the development of the Canadian Organic Standard; links to provincial and International Standards.

    • Organic Landscaping and Property Maintenance
      Richard Wetmore outlines the principles of 'organic landcare' and how a landscaper gains organic certification.

    • Organic Land Care Committee of Connecticut and Massachusetts
      (www.organiclandcare.net/) (Viewed 15 May 2007).
      Associated with NOFA (Northeast Organic Farming Association), this website offers news, publications, accreditation and other courses especially relevant to the northeastern U.S.

    • Sustainable Turf Care Horticulture Systems Guide
      (http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/turfcare.html#Diversity) ATTRA, Spons. Barbara Bellows, Auth. (Viewed 12 Oct. 2006).
      "This publication is written for lawn care professionals, golf course superintendents, or anyone with a lawn. The emphasis is on soil management and cultural practices that enhance turf growth and reduce pests and diseases by reducing turf stress. It also looks at mixed species and wildflower lawns as low maintenance alternatives to pure grass lawns." Appendix: Tables 1-6 provide good overviews of 1. Characteristics of good quality compost for turf, 2. Organic Nutrient Sources, 3. Characteristics of Common Turf Grasses, 4. Cultural Practices for Turf Disease Control, 5. Cultural and Biological Control Methods for Turf Insect Pests and Other Arthropods, 6. Conditions that Favor Weed Infestations.

    Toxicity of Common Household Products, & Alternatives
    • Guide to Less Toxic Products
      (www.lesstoxicguide.ca/) Environmental Health Associaton of Nova Scotia, spons. (Viewed 12 Oct. 2006).
      This site offers information about potential health risks of commonly used products, including "greenwashed" products, and help in identifying less toxic alternatives for personal care, household cleaning, baby care, and household pest control. See also the sponsor's home site (Environmental Health Association  of Nova Scotia).

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    Site posted 5 Apr. 2004
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