Field after rotovating

The rotovator was more effective at cutting up and mixing residues into the soil than the mouldboard plough (right) but it didn't achieve a critical benefit of mouldboard ploughing: a slight ridging (hilling) of the soil. Ridging is a benefit in heavier soils in cooler, moist climates as it results in better surface drainage and faster warming up of soil in the spring. We speculated that ridging the soil after cultivating might reduce the phytotoxicity problem.

Right: soil that has been mouldboard ploughed.

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